GENERATION OF COMPUTERS
First Generation (1942-1955)
Computers made between 1942 and 1955 are called first
generation computers. The vacuum tube was the main component of the structural
structure of those computers. Although these computers had many advantages as a
symbol of technological advancement, they also had some disadvantages in
First, all these computers were large in size. Second, these
could not always work with credibility. Third, they could not be used without
air conditioning. Fourth, the hardware systems of these computers often failed.
For example, vacuum tubes were often damaged or damaged. Then there was no way
but to change it. Fifth, these were not suitable for moving from one place to
Second Generation (1955-1974)
Second-generation computers naturally use more advanced technology.
With advanced technology, transistors have been installed in computers at this
stage instead of vacuum tubes. The components of these computers were
relatively small in size.
Now let’s see what the advantages of second-generation
computer were. First, they were small in size. Second, they could work more
accurately than first-generation computers. Third, they generate less heat when
turned on. Fourth, these computers could speed up data processing. Fifth, their
hardware systems were also less crippled.
However, some problems were also noticed in the second-generation
computers. First, they needed air-conditioning to operate. Second, their
maintenance required repeated steps over a short period of time. Third, their
commercial production methods were quite complex and expensive.
Third Generation (1974-1985)
Third-generation computers have evolved into more advanced
technology through continuous research. Transistors were used in second
generation computers. Third-generation computers were replaced by integrated
circuits (ICs), which were usually limited to a small piece of silicon in a
tiny space-conducting power cycle. The technology that this IC uses is called
Large Scale Integration (LSI) technology.
Due to the use of more advanced technology than the second-generation
computers, the level of difficulty in the third-generation computer is very
low, the advantages increase a lot. First, third generation computers were
smaller in size.
Second, they could work with greater reliability. Third,
they generate less heat when used. Fourth, they could speed up data processing.
Fifth, their maintenance costs were lower. Sixth, these computers were
portable, meaning they could be easily moved from one place to another.
Seventh, they would require less electricity to run. Eighth, their commercial
production was relatively simple and their cost was low.
Fourth generation (1975 and
Very large-scale integration technology or VSLI technology
is used in fourth generation computers instead of third generation LSI
technology. Microprocessors are installed in computers based on this
technology. Naturally, its practical benefits increased many times. First of
all, the production cost of this computer has come down a lot. Second, they are
very fast in the question of the role of information formatting. Third, their
memory is very strong, meaning that these computers can hold a large amount of
information in their memory at once. Fourth, they are quite small in size.
Fifth, they require less power to run. Sixth, out of the four generations
discussed so far, this generation of computers is the cheapest in terms of
Scientists are now working to create fifth-generation
computers, researching more advanced and refined technology inventions. The
application of optic fiber technology has already started. Remember, human
talent has its own identity, but computer does not have it. Computers have to
be made intelligent. So, computer intelligence is artificial intelligence. How
this technology and its applications can be made sharper and more efficient
with the help of optical fiber and other technologies is being tested on fifth
Classification of modern computers:
Computers can be divided
into three classes based on the method of information formatting. These are (1)
digital computer (2) analog computer (3) hybrid computer. Digital computers can
be further divided into five categories based on their size and capabilities –
(1) supercomputers, (2) mainframes, (3) mini computers, (4) microcomputers, (5)
personal computers (PCs).
Nowadays only digital computers are used everywhere.
Therefore, in the next stage of this section, all the discussions were held
with or in front of the digital computer.